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I - INTRODUCTION

prepared by the World Bank and the first 2003 Reports described in the Business Environment, By fixing reforms affecting the investment climate in the world economy is an international resource sharing with the public on an annual basis. Report, evaluation reveals the largest operating in the city for legislation affecting businesses in the process of doing business on issues such as small and medium enterprises and their application in terms of economic activity in a country. Report, June 2016 - May 2017 It includes reforms carried out during the period.

31 October 2017 Announced on 15th Report of the Business Environment, the business environment interests 11 under different sets of indicators 190 assessed the economy. Said indicators include:

  • Starting work (Starting a business)
  • Removal of Building Permits (Dealing with construction permits)
  • Electricity Supply (Getting electricity)

  • Land register (Registering property)

  • Credit Supply (Getting credit)

  • Minority Shareholder Protection Rights (Protecting minority investors)

  • tax Payments (Paying taxes)

  • Cross-Border Trade (Trading across borders)

  • Enforcing Contracts (Enforcing contracts)

  • Solution to Bankruptcy (Resolving insolvency)

  • Labor Market Regulations (Labor market regulation)

data on the effectiveness of the labor market are taken into account when calculating the country ranking.

II - GENERAL REPORT DETECTION The

identify some of the highlights of the report can be summarized as follows:

  • The report discussed 190 119 of the country, In order to improve the business environment has made at least one reform.
  • The countries in the top places in the ranking although more diverse than in previous years, of the countries in the top 20 is observed that some of the common side. for example, of the countries in the top 20 14 them in the high-income group consists of countries with OECD.
  • Located respectively in the ranking in the top 5 countries New Zealand, Singapore, Denmark, While South Korea and Hong Kong, Libya, Yemen, Southern Sudan, Venezuelan, Eritrea and Somalia has constituted the last 5. According to Turkey last year 9 Ranked 60th stage took place rises.
  • 2017 The report ranks Georgia 16th in field, this year 7 9th rose by 20 steps in the first place have attracted attention as the only low-middle income countries. Georgia, The first reports began to be published 2003 the year so far, In order to improve the overall business environment 47 carrying out reforms took first place in this area. That's why, 9Article take place in the level of income surprising though, considering, substantial completion 15 collect the fruit of years of reforms implemented.
  • no report to date on all low-income countries are taking part in the first 20.
  • A country's highest income group to take place in the top rankings in the ease of doing business index does not guarantee to take place. Less bureaucratic obstacles factors that are important for good performance in the index, There is the presence of a robust legal framework and international best practices based on a legislative infrastructure.
  • Another important characteristic of the countries in the top 20, Be higher than the average of other countries and the participation rate in the labor force in these countries is at low levels of income inequality.
  • In the considered period, 2018 The report covered the year 190 The total area of ​​the ease of doing business in the country 264 many reforms are made.
  • Most of the reforms carried out 83 with Sub-Saharan Africa region, while, most reforms with 38 units Starting work and Credit Supply It has been implemented in the areas of.
  • In which reform Solution to Bankruptcy (13 piece) and Enforcing Contracts (20 piece) as it was done in the legal field. It should be noted at this point, That arise with the application of the success of legal reforms that require close collaboration and influence of is the fact that in the long term can be better observed among public institutions in executive positions in countries with regulatory bodies.
  • Economic reforms related to the business environment, there are two theories as to what time. first, durumunda- economies, for example when the economic crisis is a requirement to reform, so this path prefers to stay out for another option to reform. The second theory is based on, If the trend is more to reform the new government came to power in a country.
  • about which theory is more accurate compared to studies using data Business Environment Report, countries tend to make more reforms the unlikely event of an economic crisis. According to this, first theory is more accurate.
  • However,, The public debt in a country remain at low levels, it is less than intensity to reform the country.
  • Is cumbersome and burdensome regulations concerning the business in a country, entrepreneurs and employees is a factor pushing informality. When bureaucratic obstacles more, most privileged sectors of society can make their jobs by taking legal support or bribe.
  • The data collected for the report, inequality, It supports the view that there is a strong correlation between poverty and labor regulations. Substantially, The countries with the better business arrangement has a lower average level of poverty.

III - DETERMINATION OF THE REPORT ON TURKEY The

190 Where the country 2018 Ease of Doing Business Index in Turkey compared to the previous year 9 Record your progress and steps have been taken place on the 60th. Tablo-1'de 2006 Turkey's place in the ranking since shown.

Table 1: 2006-2018 Turkey's place in the Business Environment Report

Year The number of countries Turkey's Ranking Change on Previous Year
2006 155 84
2007 175 65 19
2008 178 60 5
2009 181 63 -3
2010 183 60 3
2011 183 73 -13
2012 183 68 5
2013 185 72 -4
2014 189 51 21
2015 189 51 0
2016 189 63 -12
2017 190 69 -6
2018 190 60 9

Tablo 2'de 2017 and 2018 Turkey's ranking is given a set of indicators in each report.

  • we have the best performance indicator, 20'The protection of minority shareholder rights we take place in th. It is noteworthy that the index continued to make progress in our country. Compared to the previous year 2 We are elevated places.
  • indicators we ranks lowest, 139'Subject to the bankruptcy of the solutions we be in. At the same time this indicator, 13 According to the places with the previous year it has been recorded in most areas decline.
  • most progress indicator is set tax payments compared to the previous year. According to this, In paying taxes indicator 2017 Turkey ranks 128 of the year, 2018 in the year 40 It has risen to well advanced and 88th places.
  • Our country, Customs and Trade Ministry of the indicators that we think directly concern;
  1. Limits on cross-border trade compared to last year 1 70th fell by step,
  2. compared to last year in getting a job 1 80th fell by step,
  3. compared to last year in obtaining credit 5 Scroll through places 77'inc,
  4. According to last year's bankruptcy solution 13 139'unc declined by step

It was ranked.

Table 2: 2017-2018 Turkey Status Indicator Set according to the report

Indicator Set 2017 2018 Change
Protection of Minority Shareholders' Rights 22 20 2
Implementation of the Convention 33 30 3
Entry to the Land Registry 54 46 8
Electricity Supply 58 55 3
Cross-Border Trade 70 71 -1
Credit Supply 82 77 5
Starting work 79 80 -1
tax Payments 128 88 40
receiving construction permits 102 96 6
Solution to Bankruptcy 126 139 -13

Source: Work environment 2018 Report

Starting work

  • 2018 Reports in Turkey, According to a report in the previous year index starting work 1 saving step was ranked the 80th decline. Table 3 then for our country 3 Data are shown of the year.
  • Begin work on display 2018 Although the value of the border points from the year experienced progress, rankings 1 The reason we have places has declined, do more in this area that reforms of other countries, thus shows that further progress. also, said indicators in our country, the number of procedures, and it appears to have different application time by gender for cost.

Table 3: Starting Indicator Set in Turkey

2016 2017 2018
Place in the rankings 90 79 80
Distance Rate Limit Value 85.18 86.98 87.59
The number of procedures - (For men) 8 7 7
The number of procedures - (for women) 8 7 7
Time - Day (For men) 7.5 6.5 6.5
Time - Day (for women) 7.5 6.5 6.5
Cost (Percentage of Per Capita Income) (For men) 16.6 16.4 12.8
Cost (Percentage of Per Capita Income) (for women) 16.6 16.4 12.8
Minimum Paid-in Capital (Percentage of Per Capita Income) 11.0 10.2 7.8

Source: Work environment 2018 Report

Credit Supply

  • In Turkey by providing loans 2016 In 79th, 2017 In the queue while 82inc, 2018 In the index of year 5 step progress and saved rose to as 77inc (Table 4). The depth of credit information index, Turkey's best case is that while sub-criteria, The worst performance was seen that the power of legal rights index. Lenders and improvements in the strength of legal rights index in the evaluation of the legislation regulating the rights of not providing credit has played a role in the improvement in this indicator. also, The percentage of the adult population according to the official record was also recorded an increase in scope.

Table 4: Credit Supply set of indicators in Turkey

2016 2017 2018
Ranking 79 82 77
Distance Rate Limit Value 50 50 55
The Power of Legal Rights Index 3 3 4
Depth of Credit Information Index 7 7 7
Percentage of Adults by the Official Registry of Population Coverage %75 %76,6 %80,2

Source: Work environment 2018 Report

Solution to Bankruptcy

  • As known, With the bankruptcy of the solution set of indicators, time and costs associated with the process of liquidating a bankrupt company, The effectiveness of legislation on the subject is measured by the results of the judicial liquidation process. The Business Environment Report of the resolution of the recent bankruptcy of Turkey's performance 3 year values ​​are listed in Table 5.

Table 5: Bankruptcy Solution sets of indicators in Turkey

2016 2017 2018
Place in the rankings 124 126 139
Distance Rate Limit Value 35.09 34.98 33.26
Return Rate (Cent/Dolar) 18.7 18.5 15.3
Time (Year) 4.5 4.5 5.0
Cost (The percentage of immovable property) 14.5 14.5 14.5
Effectiveness Index of Liquidation Framework (0-16) 8.0 8.0 8.0
legally start of the liquidation (0-3) 3.0 3.0 3.0
The management of the debtor's assets (0-6) 2.0 2.0 2.0
Re-editing operations (0-3) 1.0 1.0 1.0
The participation of creditors (0-4) 2.0 2.0 2.0

Source: Work environment 2018 Report

  • 2017 According to the index year, The process of liquidation of a bankrupt company average 4,5 ongoing year and the return rate was 18.5%, 2018 In this period 5 That year out and we see that the recovery rate also decreased to 15.3%. Because of these reasons mentioned, 2018 In our ranking in this indicator compared to the previous year 13 The digits worsening 139 It was determined.
  • The reports regarding decline in this indicator has made a determination in Turkey page. 31 July 2016 Published on 669 Decree Law No. postpone the bankruptcy of the demand during the emergency rule with Article 4 of the bankruptcy and the decision to postpone was forbidden. It is stated that the solution becomes more difficult with the bankruptcy of the said amendment.

Cross-Border Trade

  • Turkey, In the area of ​​cross-border trade compared to last year 1 It has taken place in the 71ST declined by step. When calculating the data for Turkey; sent to France in exports of motor vehicles (87Th chapter), auto parts imported from Germany imports (8708 position) and transport mode are also considered seaway (Table 6).

Table 6: Criteria used for Cross-Border Trade Indicators in Turkey

Export Imports
Goods HS 87: Motor vehicles, tractor, bicycle, motorcycles and other HS 8708: components for road vehicles, parts and accessories
trading partner France Germany
Anger Port of Derince Ambarlı Port
Distance (Km) 90 38
Domestic shipping time (time) 3 3
Domestic shipping cost ($) 550 263

Source: Work environment 2018 Report

  • Export customs clearance 16 hours, The preparation of documents 5 complemented hour. Costs for customs clearance 376 While the cost of preparing the documents US Dollar 87 USD is. In Imports, customs clearance 41 Preparation of hours and documents 11 complemented hour. Costs for customs clearance 655 ABD Doları, The cost of preparing documentation 142 It is calculated in US Dollars (Table 7).
  • As shown in Table 7 to examine carefully, In compliance document preparation, Ramada compliance, including customs and domestic shipping 3 In cross-border trade indicators measured under the procedures set, All values ​​in both exports and imports in our country is the same process.

IV - RESULTS

Work environment 2018 Reports in Turkey, although 2017 According to the index year 9 Although the earlier steps up 2014 and 2015 Where the ordinary is still behind in 51st year.

As discussed in detail above,, 2018 year compared to the previous year index most progress of our country in the set of indicators 40 Are we paying taxes rises digits. The reason for this rise in tax payments indicator, by calculating their tax payments 2017 year report with a statement after the index of the sub-criteria are added (post-filing index) Score our, is based on the previous year has increased dramatically. Said lower by adding the previous index which ranks 61st in Turkey, After reviewing the criteria added passed 2017 128'inc ranking dropped to as. 2018 In the points with the increase of the said sub-criteria as Turkey has risen to 80th. Nevertheless, In our country paying taxes indicator 2016 It is worth noting that it has declined compared to year.

In this case, as will be found in a faulty detection: With regard to the process after the declaration of tax payment 2017 In our rankings for the first time collected data in the specified collection for years has made considerable decline in a healthy way. 2018 After more healthy years of data collected in this indicator has increased our ranking again. In this case, The problems in the data collection phase indicator of tax collection, our country 2017 It has played the role in the deterioration of the overall standings years.

Finally, we want to emphasize a point, cross-border trade indicators, The last of all the values ​​in our country both exports and import transactions 3 It is not the same for years. Customs and Trade Ministry, a lot of applications in order to perform the specified period, the trade has implemented quickly and easily. Despite that, There appears to be enough if progress by responding to the survey question regarding the said indicators.

Not: Business Environment we have discussed in detail the methodology of the report and our Customs and Trade Professionals Association of Expert Opinion published in the Journal of 44-45'inc "15 Questions in Business Environment (Doing Business) The report entitled "our article http://gtud.org/2017/03/22/15-soruda-is-ortami-doing-business-raporu/ Can be accessed from the link.

REFERENCES

world Bank (2017), “Doing Business 2018. Reforming to Create Jobs”, <http://www.doingbusiness.org/~/media/WBG/DoingBusiness/Documents/Annual-Reports/English/DB2018-Full-Report.pdf

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:

Hamid BOZTEPE

Risk Management and Control General Directorate

Customs and Trade Specialist

0312 449 38 38

h.boztepe@gtb.gov.tr

1983 Born in Kayseri. First, He completed his primary and secondary education in Kayseri. 2006 In Erciyes University and graduated from the Business section. 2014-2016 Located in the USA in the year he completed his MBA programs at Southern New Hampshire University. 2007 In abolished the Customs Undersecretariat of Customs Experts began his career as an Assistant to the Ministry of Customs and Trade, Risk Management and continues to be in control of the General Directorate of Customs and Trade Expert.

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