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Technological advances continue to change our lives every day. days mean that the Internet revolution has left behind a large although not very old dates, even forgotten. Today, the "Internet of Things-N (Internet of Things-IoT)"It is recognized as an innovation that will change the world. Internet of Things is based on systems that can function without any human contact and the use of several technologies together. The object of the internet in our lives begin to bring even said that it will bring innovation and ease to every field.

This study, the first object of the internet and the concept will be assessed and reflected in various areas of our lives that can be created utilizing the object of a 4.0 Customs technological opportunities brought about by the internet concept / Customs 4.0 concept and this concept will be informed about the basic instruments and world applications.

1. Internet of Things

1960'S and it began to be developed in the past thirty years, yet approaching the Internet in Turkey, broadcasting and communication has become the most important source of our life. Almost everything that happened is moved to the Internet and the plans and programs that will take place is done on the internet. Maybe things have moved to the internet in the near future will become the reality in doubt.

Now the Internet (If we are to tell the computer language) We are on the verge of a new era that will upgrade. We've just come to the end of the interconnection of computers and smart devices, Each object may come to mind that can connect to the internet. Currently less than 1% of all the objects that can connect to the internet are connected to the internet. So, about could benefit from an IP address 1,5 The object trillion, but 15 billion is connected to the internet. Today, computers are in an advanced society, tablets, electronics and communication devices (smartphones etc.), ev- wherein the physical infrastructure elements (heat setters, plumbing and so on.), garments and wearable, vehicles and opened the way to bind to the internet much more. 2020 The number of Internet-connected devices until the year 50 Will exceed 83 billion and would be borne Ni% of all internet connections are estimated.

Internet of Things; The identities of the physical and virtual objects, physical characteristics, Where the virtual personality, Intelligent interfaces that can be used and integrated in a seamless manner to the communication network may be, and based on standard communication protocols can work together represents a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuration capabilities.

so, Everything on the Internet is creating a variety of networking / Internet of Everything (Hi / cheat) Also referred to as the concept seems to be a pioneer. These connections from the device-to-device, device-to-person or person-to-person will be. Internet of Everything (Hİ) The concept was not only the connection of physical objects to each other within the network structuring, persons, process and comprises the connections between the data.

So, almost every object you can think of RFID, GPS vb. decisions by sensing the environment by means of sensors and applications using technologies taking, data generation and data and the Internet to connect with each other and this decision begins by sharing a system with people over the Internet or they can directly follow the prompts.

N only refers to a structure than a case where objects are interconnected in a network. assessment to be performed using the data obtained from these systems will be effective for transformation of the business process. This new system of industrial process, to home, from cars and public services, It has a potential to affect everything from the logistics process. In short, smart factories is no longer on our agenda, smart houses, smart cities, There driverless vehicles and smart furnishings.

It is estimated that the new opportunities and great development and transformation reveals an enormous economic returns. Which is expected to occur in the period up to 2025 way above (Based on estimates rather modest) areas where economic returns and these returns are seen to occur.

production processes would be nice in the new system's basic platform, public services and logistics sectors will spend a drastic change. Below NInin, Industry expressing the transformation of the production process, starting from 4.0, deals are considered to be issued and the effects on public services and logistics.

1.1 Internet and Industrial Objects 4.0

An aspect of the revolutions in human history, inventions, Is the history of discoveries and innovations. Until today numerous inventions, He has directed the history of humanity exploration and innovation, and has also become a part of. Agricultural revolution, the invention of writing, The invention of the compass, geographical discoveries, etc.. is one example that comes to our mind first.

The world's present state constitutes one of the main developments is the use of mechanical looms beginning of the industrial water and steam power revolution. It assessed the Industrial Revolution that hit cyber-physical systems present in four stages, 3D printers like the smart factory and period features to the fore, Industry 4.0 It is called.

4.0 The main axis of the forms of industry combined with information technology industrial process. machinery in factories in the production process accordingly, computers, sensors and other integrated computer systems to exchange information with each other, almost completely independent from the people that can coordinate themselves and optimizing production.

Industry 4.0 The first component is different from today's hardware, low cost, space-saving, consuming less energy, producing less heat, but working in high-reliability hardware and hardware resources to run and are highly efficient in terms of memory usage, operating systems and software.

The second component of the Internet of Things / Internet of Things (S / IoT) called, every appliance to the integrated sensors and actuators of all devices by means of the earth is used for exchanging data and information with each other,, Briefly cyber-physical systems are also intelligent electronic systems with an internet connection can call. the machines in the factories in the production process means the use of cyber-physical systems are almost independent of people that can coordinate themselves and optimizing production means smart factories. If Industry 4.0 If realized production time strategy, The amount of energy needed for production and costs will be reduced, production quantity and quality will increase. Internet and smart devices connected to the internet in the first place the technical infrastructure of this system, 3D constitutes printers with RFID and sensors using technologies such as GPS.

Industry 4.0 Germany regarding konspet, Britain and Finland, as well as being a pioneer in the United States carried out national programs, China Smart Factory 1.0 trying to capture the process of the project, The people in the pilot project implemented in the Bosch Rexroth plant in Hamburg, machines and products are operatively connected to each other.

1.2 Internet and Public Service Objects

Objects are the public sector and public services, while other areas will create a transformation of the Internet. estimates of the economic market size for public sector that may occur up to above 2025 1,6 trillion $ Although, Cisco Systems reports; cost savings, increased productivity, new revenue and this figure is increasing as a result of the improved product and service satisfaction of citizens 4,6 trillion to $ estimates are also bearing up. Economic figures as large as can not ignore the no actor seemed to suggest that this transformation will also give a chance to anyone seem to prefer to stay outside. First and foremost, the right of citizens to identify the expectations of the public administration and how much met expectations could be measured as an area that could benefit from nice emerges.

The advantages of the internet of objects of the public sector to be fully implemented; to produce a new service models, to learn new technologies and to perform them in order to determine the appropriate organizational structures will have to review the whole process. The disappearance of routine tasks, or task definitions that we know in this case appears possible. e.g, teachers are not in the group activities important part of the class time, You can separate the personal active or being implemented in our country Traffic Electronic Control System (HAVE)'In development by traffic policemen vary job description or frame. The same thing can be said of many areas where health services and traditional occupations today.

1.3 Internet of objects and Logistics Processes

One of the nice areas will create conversion 1,9 $ trillion worth of estimated economic return is expected to occur by the logistics sector. the impact on the logistics concept nice, shaped space and treatment processes can be evaluated on three platforms.

If we look at the concept level, first need to assess supply chain and in terms of synchro-modality. emerging as a new trend in the logistics field synchro-modality; throughout the entire logistics operations by type of customer the freedom to choose where you want to move freight forwarder and logistics service providers can be defined as a transport mode is given from the start. Sync-modalities uygulamasında, data collection and complete visibility throughout the supply chain logistics service to its users and to ensure traceability of processing elements are emerging as critical. objects are seen to play an important role in the provision of these elements of the Internet. In an other saying; synchro-modality development of the object will proceed in parallel with the development of web applications.

We approach the issue in terms of space are issues that need to be addressed if the logistics centers. Those who benefit from the focus of logistics service providers and services through a consolidated information system of logistics centers that can provide significant gains possible by obtaining the advantages of predictability in the framework of their activities.

Here, logistics centers will connect with the infrastructure of the hinterland and stakeholders will form an integrated information system for.

Almost all of the supply chain and converted with N the logistics process or activity can be increased. real-time tracking of containers between the first thought, data for optimal stacking container (stacking) For purposes of, automated load terminals (automated terminals) ensuring the transition, to shorten the time required for customs clearance, etc.. sortable.

It has a significant effect to apply to logistics operations nisi. Presence throughout the value chain, Cargo and people could watch in real time the status of the. and show how the performance of these assets that can measure the level of instantaneous changes. To eliminate manual intervention, to improve quality and predictability, and can automate business processes to reduce costs. Peoples, systems and can optimize interoperability between operating assets and are able to coordinate their activities.

Inventory theft and delays to the shipping company and logistics providers will cost billions of dollars. Freight-Watch, 2012 In the United States in general 946, including organized crime and 37 in Europe 689 Total crime reported for the port and recreation areas. N supply chain will make a significant contribution to the safety and traceability. e.g, It will be installed in the truck telematics sensors and multisensor on the object tags, location, status (Any out has not exceeded a threshold level) If or when a container (To detect potential theft) Transmits data. so, logistics service providers, Meters and down to the second level on the movement of goods can be gathered to allow traceability. As well as the individual article level at the time of goods, They can watch it right and be followed unharmed.

Another area that can benefit from warehouses are nice. Warehouses have the quality of being both an important crossroads for both foreign trade transactions are subject to special security criteria by the customs authorities. making Ni-based process using RFID technology in this regard warehouse, both operators and to create productivity gains and cost benefits for users as well as means to facilitate the enhancement and control of security in terms of customs administration.

To explain briefly the RFID systems in warehouse; volumes about goods, size, amount, etc.. RFID tags contain such information is pasted on the package or pallet level, storage warehouse entry in the warehouse management system for processing data collected by the tag identified by the RFID reader (AYS) Dispatched. Exit through the door again scanned output pallets and the goods will be deducted from stock ays'.

potential rewards, warehouse management are nice;

  • Input-output time-consuming process of manual counting as may disappear,
  • Input-output cameras can be placed in the damage assessment scans pallets,
  • Pallets when placed in the right place ays'y tags send signals to provide real-time visibility of stock levels (so as unexpected depletion of the stock situation can be avoided),
  • If any items misplaced; readers, The correct position of things to fix it can alert store managers about who will follow,
  • for quality management, reader monitors the state of an object in terms of humidity and temperature, or to give a warning when the storage administrator risky situations arise (thus, Taking measures to increase the quality of services provided and customer confidence),
  • during Delivery, Pallets are scanned through the exit door and ensure that the correct goods are sent to the correct delivery order,
  • Machinery and vehicles connected to a central system, All tools provided the warehouse manager to monitor in real time. Vehicles administrator when used excessively or when a vehicle is idle to do other tasks can be induced. for example, such as conveyor belts in a ranking system that is used or how often the vehicle is idle and the various readers to determine if these situations arise in which hours available. defined optimal capacity ratios and functions as the means by analyzing data from the reader.

The logistics industry in here so that part of the work has always dealt with aspects of the private sector. Ni customs administrations in terms of processes and procedures in case the candidate is to bring great innovations and conveniences. In the next sections N & Industry 4.0 I'm inspired by the concept of a Customs 4.0 / Customs 4.0 The general framework of concepts and technical aspects to be drawn in certain areas of the topics will be discussed and applications in the world.

2. 4.0 Customs / Customs 4.0

The first information we have thought about customs that are as old as the emergence of world trade in Mesopotamian civilization and the Hammurabi Laws (M.O. 1750-60) It is going up. Later Persia, Greek and Roman sources gives place to the customs duties. Customs 1.0 At this stage what we might call, Customs duties were taken in various ways, including not only the country's borders. customs administrations was seen purely as a revenue administration in this ongoing process until the emergence of the modern nation-state.

  1. infant industries or educational customs thesis in the context of import substitution policies for the customs has become a tool used to being an administration collects taxes from goods exceeding more limits depending on the modern state emerged in the century, as well as for the protection of national economy; Customs 2.0 Acceptable has reached the stage.

In parallel with the deepening of globalization thoroughly since the 1990s, and in the process revealed that substantially reduced the revenues of customs and trade facilitation and protection functions and to combat illegal trade functions of the period in which the forefront Customs 3.0 It is possible to define.

Globalization is now fully integrated into the development of information technology revealed (such as e-commerce and e-logistics) completely new concept began after 2010 and is still ongoing at this stage; The fast and secure technology to meet the needs of commerce on the basis of where the global supply chain Customs 4.0 As we can talk of a concept can be named.

this concept, in which the basic technology to fulfill the customs; technological equipment of goods throughout the supply chain objects forming the basis for the Internet (RFID and GPS sensors and so on.) monitoring the aid, all trade data is blokzinc (block chain) safely stored and forwarded on, artificial intelligence applications, machine learning and big data (big data) through the creation of a revolution in risk management analysis system, robot control and the like of the chemical and radioactive articles in risky operations has the potential to spread to areas such as is used instead of human.

United States's first finance minister Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), Report on Manufactures (1790) Known by name due to report, infant industry argument is known as the first advocate. Him, Raymond Daniel again in North America (1786-1849) ile Henry Charles Carey (1793-1879) and in Germany, Friedrich List (1789-1846) they watch. However, the establishment of new industries brought some problems and deficiencies in the country allegedly on customs import substitution policies and protect their infant industries in English literature advocating this idea argument (infant industry argument), In German literature educational customs argument (Infant industry argument) It is called.

Naturally,, Those mentioned above Customs 4.0 It is just an example application to, see any boundaries beyond our imagination in this area does not seem possible.

Customs in the next part of our article 4.0 Some information for transferring applications, Our department will give results also included some basic projections about future.

2.1 RFID Technology and Applications in the Customs Area

Customs procedures, speed and security will be equally important, thus facilitating control of conflicting policies and properly organizing maximum process yield are part of a system where the main purpose of. And to deliver the goods in the fastest way, which means they must both prevent abuses and ensure safety in terms of legislation to protect the transported goods; It causes it to become one of the most benefits from the technological advances of the customs administrations and institutions. These objectives and expectations in the framework of the customs authorities of the security standards in order to accelerate and facilitate transactions without interruption RFID (Radio-frequency Identification / Radio Frequency Identification) the utilization of the technology will be useful.

RFID system using radio frequency automatically identifies objects. RFID, basically consists of a tag and reader. Electronic Product Code RFID tags (EPC) to get information such as the object, store and can be programmed to send. Information on supply chain being read by the reader of the label placed on the product can be automatically recorded, modified or transmitted.

RFID tag, A silicon chip that allows you to receive and answer to queries made by radio frequency, antenna and coating occurs. Chip, Which stores information about objects on the label. Antenna, The object using radio frequency to transmit information to the reader. The coating surrounds the chip and antenna to be placed on an object tag.

RFID tags 3 is kind: passive (ineffective), semi-passive (semi-active) or active (effective). Passive tags have their own power supply of the cheapest kind of label, They work with the power of the reader. Whereas, When using the circuit chip semi-passive tags the power supply to actuate, They alerted the reader to communicate. these tags are more reliable as they have a wider readership area, They can provide a quicker response to the reader. Active tags are, Unlike other types that produce and reply signals of the operational circuits have their own power supply. This exhibit high performance with features but costs are also higher.

Active and semi-passive tags are used for high-value assets such as railway wagons to be followed at longer intervals, but they are more expensive than passive tags and be used in low-value assets. Today, active tags continue R & D work to cheaper goods. reading distance of passive tags depends on many factors. The frequency of Operations, The power of the reader, RF collisions with other cars, etc.. In general, low-frequency tags 0.33 and readable meters away from the less. High-frequency tags 1 the meter, The UHF tags 3-7 read from the meter. The greater the distance when necessary, power supply using active tags 100 Meters and can support more.

Microchips in RFID tags also 3 is kind: Only readable, Which can be either read or written, Once written can be read many times (WORM–Write Once Read Many). The ability to track which articles, scope reader field, you can add new information or change information. unchangeable serial numbers on these labels. Read only tags store data during production.

2.1.1 Area of ​​Use of RFID Technology

RFID technology, It is being used in many areas, including supply chain operations. Apartment and regulation of entrance and exit sites, warehousing (stock control and inventory management), passports, Malls, such as schools and libraries is a suitable technology for use in almost every area of ​​life.

intended use of RFID technology;

  1. To minimize administrative errors,
  2. avoid the labor costs associated with Barcoding,
  3. Managerial prevent abuses,
  4. To avoid delivery errors,
  5. To create a reliable system to track inventory levels,

The advantages of RFID technology include;

  • It is safe; the recorded data will not be lost, If desired, scatter and deliberately deleted deleted.
  • both readable and writable without the need for manpower.
  • many tags can be read simultaneously, even from a distance (1 to label 0,5 second / avg.).
  • RFID technology can also be used in difficult environmental conditions, unlike barcode; what, sis, ice, affected by environmental factors such as paint.
  • safer than a barcode system can be used with the property of non-simulated.
  • data transfer between the RFID tag and reader systems are performed faultlessly.
  • information held within the RFID tags, It is significantly greater than the bar code and can be changed if desired. for example, If the desired temperature fluctuations RFID tags can be recorded on several occasions.

The benefits of RFID technology are;

  • The effect of reducing the operating costs of work places.
  • Saves saving significant amounts of time.
  • Applied object provides more control over.
  • Makes measurable labor.
  • Reduces abuses.
  • Facilitate stock management, Increases the reliability of shipments.
  • Prevents waste, Lowers costs, Improves quality.
  • Efficiency and increase customer satisfaction.

2.1.2 Implementation of RFID Technology in Customs

and many organizations are concerned that the huge size of the collection of data Customs procedures, It requires additional processing and transmission. RFID technology; speed the process of reconciling the needs of the supply chain with customs clearance processes and procedures, Provides the convenience and sanitation.

RFID technology on the one hand facilitate international trade while increasing processing speed, On the other hand, this process effectively and commercial real-time combat smuggling and drug trafficking and weapons that provide important opportunities to ensure the viewership of the customs administration. Thus the customs authorities goods may use limited resources more efficiently than would have detailed information on the movements may lead to other operations.

Cargo owners complain lasts long after their long standing and customs clearance at the customs gate of constantly goods. This situation implies activities for the reduction of foreign trade actors, public institution primarily responsible for the reputation of the institution and damaged its image as a result of the reduction of corruption in addition to the customs authorities of the activities for the management of transboundary goods also reveals.

These results are reflected in the report prepared by international institutions. prepared by the World Bank 2016 According to the Logistics Performance Index in the overall standings in Turkey 160 between countries 3.42 points 34. while;

  • Productivity in the area of ​​Customs Procedures 36.
  • Quality area with the relevant Trade and Transportation Infrastructure 31.
  • Send Competitively Priced to be able to ease the delivery area 35.
  • Logistics Services in the field of Qualifications and Quality 36.
  • Availability of delivery of the Monitoring and in the field 43.
  • Buyer Timely delivery of reaching the frequency of the field 40. Ranked

It took place. Efficiency of Customs Procedures Although located in the Logistics Performance Index as a direct criterion, Competence and quality of logistics services, Monitoring and Timely Availability of reaching Prevalence of delivery and the recipient of the delivery is also affected by. Hence every RFID system innovation and improvement will be reflected in the fact that as a positive contribution to our ranking in the Logistics Performance Index will be effective for more than four criteria to be realized by the customs authorities.

Many of the customs administrations of the countries in the top positions in the logistics performance index also uses RFID Systems. These include the Port of Hong Kong's Schenz, G. Kore, Malaysia, There is also Taiwan and the USA.

The following chart measurement and calculation in order to make an academic study in Taiwan CKS shows created for the workflow for RFID Systems International Airport. The said RFID system if implemented; percent of the load handling capacity in the airline terminal 40 the rate will increase, The total storage cost for the imported goods %37 ratio was calculated to decrease. also, The total time for the completion of customs procedures at almost 1 Which it is calculated down to the minute level of the day.

the implementation of RFID systems can be expected to emerge of the benefits given below.

In terms of foreign traders:

  • Will increase traceability in the supply chain planning and operational activities will be affected in a positive way,
  • ensuring rapid realization of trade operations and the operation labor costs will decrease.

In terms of customs administration:

  • traceability of results and shortening the processing time will increase administrative efficiency of the customs process,
  • significant improvements in administrative capacity in trade facilitation and anti-trafficking issues will arise,
  • clear customs in Turkey, Accountable and will develop a modern image of public institutions at national and international level,
  • physical of the customs administration, technical and manpower resources to ensure efficient use,
  • The role of the human factor within the system by minimizing the opportunity will arise to effectively combat corruption and prevent human errors.

2.2 Blokzincir (block Chain) technology

Blokzincir (block chain) technology, cryptography is based on complex mathematics given name. A decentralized data recording system (distributed digital ledger) based systems, the parties to perform or alter data is processed without the consent of the data record. The system essentially comprises a series of interconnected to form a chain encrypted "Blok"tan consists. All chain and without changing the network participants on this subject would be, so it is not possible to change any data block. This, Changing the system to the risk of attack or nearly eliminates the risk of data. As a result,, each new transaction created contains information about previous operations, and is formed on a permanent record can be referenced at any desired system. created "Blokzinc file" All belong to all participants in the network and has a copy of each.

peer network system that is based Blokzincir (peer-to-peer network) but it allows data to be changed if you agree with the majority of network members. This feature will be noticed quickly the attacks can be prevented by means of system and network. So difficult to be created between the parties that are distant from each other or know each other "confidence" negative factors and risks that could arise from the process is cleaned.

also, blokzinc can hold much more than just process information, It can also be used to perform operations on specific files and storing them. In addition, It should be noted, depending on certain conditions, the system can be configured to carry out certain tasks. Smart contract (smart contract) Through the formation of a specific condition called concept (Achieving a certain date, the payment or receipt of any document, vb.) In case the predetermined specific tasks (Sending orders, Starting of the operations necessary for loading goods into the vehicle and so on.) automatically, ie spontaneously and without human intervention, It may be provided fulfillment. for example; A foreign trade transactions between the parties involved in the contract conditions and will be held in exchange for the work and control of transactions, tasks of monitoring and fulfillment are performed by the human factor so far, working conditions and tasks through intelligent mutual agreement with each other by controlling the fulfillment of the conditions programmed into the system in the manner and time without the human element, The tasks to be done at the moment and so it is started again as programmed.

2.2.1 Blokzinc Technology Innovation and Opportunities The will of Interest in Logistics Space

International trade is carried out with a system that involves many actors and transactions. The number of actors involved in the process due to the nature of logistics operations and costs increased number of transactions is increasing. This multi-actor and also to reduce the operational cost of the system can benefit from the convenience brought by technology blokzinc.

blokzinc is given based on the previous title with the help of intelligent contracts, All these steps can reduce administrative costs by automating all the operations and the probability of errors and can eliminate a significant portion of the risks. It is believed that the cost of the overall logistics costs account for about 20% the size of the amount of money that is saved can be estimated using smart contracts. also, a significant reduction in the cost of many vehicles will vanish involved in this process will occur.

Hence, blokzinc technology and supply chain of international trade and therefore it is important to anticipate potential benefits it could achieve in the field of logistics. dependency on logistics processes based procedures, total logistics costs %20 increased rate. on the other hand, IBM ve Maersk; In an experiment conducted for the container transport from Mombasa in Kenya to Rotterdam, Netherlands; The cold chain that sends a simple pass from the jurisdiction of more than 30 different organizations and demonstrated that requires the parties to communicate more than 200. In this example,, data and information; where the human element is basically inefficient, repeated many times unnecessarily and data edit / eliminate the risks reveals that comprises processed in a manner. Thus, the resulting negative externalities; While the increase in foreign trade, Face significant risks to the integrity and security of data and sends, A decrease in the supply chain visibility and reduces the efficiency of the system at all as a result thereof, and as a result, causes an increase of the cost borne by the ultimate consumer. Blokzinc technology, substantially or completely human factor extremely fast and secure data storage and processing of removing outside of the system is emerging as a tool to perform.

And also, Blokzincir Ni will be integrated into applications can be eliminated through capacity planning problems in the transport, especially road transport. According to a study conducted in the US, trucks inability to accurately and instantaneously the planned capacity, per annum 46,67 they wander billion kilometers of empty or partially filled. This, The world's environment 1 It is equal to wander more than a million times. This deficiency in the consolidated cargo, It causes a cost of millions of dollars each year for trucking companies and also brings a huge extra cost to consumers. N-integrated applications blokzinc and capacitive occupancy rates are determined instantaneously and in real time. the idle capacity to instantly transport procurement system revealed here (load board) transferring, load information and to avoid duplication in these channels, and the carrier has mutually load helps to achieve an optimal service-cost components.

When we look at a multinational company in the supply chain of goods in large amounts of complex logistics channels and contracts, Using certificates and approvals, Holders of the manufacturer, surpassing many legal obstacles, distributors / wholesalers and reaches the final consumer via retailers are faced with an extremely complex made. this process, To accommodate such high costs or the risks of error and fraud, Among the many organizations that customs and other regulatory agencies, including the exchange of information involves making. Today's customs procedures, security, It requires a considerable manpower in case of correct identification of valuation rules of origin and establishing standards for. Through Blokzinc, all of these processes may be able to make it more efficient and transparent.

In case of using a company's supply chain blokzinc; Each process or step of recording, followed by certification and will have the necessary infrastructure and eliminates the need for continuous verification of the hand along the supply chain various intermediates. All information about any shipment (and customs declaration forms, invoice, konşimento, insurance and so on.) All suppliers by making it part of a block blokzinc, carrier, buyers can access with a transparent regulators and auditors "Chain of custody" can be created. To keep all this information in one place not only reduces the transaction costs of auditing and accounting costs. exporters of customs procedures, All documents in compliance with the import regulations by installing the goods to a customs blokzincir (origin, hygiene and plant health, preferential tariffs, embargo and bans etc.) Can prove instantly.

2.2.2 Using Technology in the Customs Blokzinc

blokzinc technology innovation and ease of use as all logistics and foreign trade also has the potential to create greater convenience and innovation in the customs process.

Blokzincir, Given the high level of compliance with the customs legislation of the customs authorities and firms these firms to be used as a next-generation application of the AEO system in which a series of ease customs procedures. AEON is based on confidence in the system to provide accurate data regarding the basic operators of the customs authorities. But, blokzinc application AEO status given to all users as a result boosted the risk of abuse of the system also occurs, All documents and data to ensure secure and quickly available to the relevant authorities to facilitate the trade of this technology and processing benefits such as increasing the speed must be kept out of sight in.

Customs Administration of the United Kingdom, It is confronted with a huge work load and the number of returns to be processed years after Brexit 150 the million 200 That will be a million, relevant, it can be used to overcome this problem have been suggested as a means of application blokzinc. A study on this subject, (see. Botton) This emerging technology that affects all processes and revolutionary contains important considerations for the use of customs procedures.

According to this; the future 5 During the year, blokzinc success stories begin to emerge in the global economy by, governments will begin to address seriously the use blokzinc for the purpose of customs clearance. But, Although the technology available, countries do not have the expertise needed for effective use of technology in public administration. So the system is not designed according to the needs of the customs procedures as well as, to train personnel to use the technology is emerging as a major problem. Therefore, the system widely used in the private sector is estimated supply chain unless it is used by public administrations will act spontaneously adopting the system. Nevertheless, public authorities, if they support by leading the R & D work on the blokzinc will accelerate the process of solving drawbacks of the system will become more secure and available platform. As a result of these developments will occur after the "legitimacy" in the perception of, blokzincir to be widely accepted, and the scientific and technical actors to constantly improve technology will lead to increased interest in this area. As you can see, The policy choices they make about the blokzinc system of public administrations will play a vital role in the development and ownership of all stakeholders.

governments, A common way to manage the supply chain before the application of the customs office, despite having the opportunity to embrace technology, This does not mean that they stayed in their desperate. As stated previously, blokzinc regulators on how to alleviate the defect, especially if the technology pioneered research, this, to justify technology, safer and will be an important step to create the kind of effort that the regulatory environment for innovative. Blokzincir for adoption by the broad level of the global economy are large incentives and support needed in this area. Who want to use this technology, but technology for SMEs without the possibility of making huge budget contracts with giant is especially true.

Also as a policy tool, EU legislation, blokzinc the innovations available to assist in all member countries. for example, FROM, As in the US state of Nevada, To use any restrictive blokzincir member states to request permission or license may not allow. Similarly, put legal limits for the use of open technology, The innovation of developers will help them focus their efforts on specific areas. On the other hand, blokzinc in promoting transparency in all transactions could be an important tool of corporate social responsibility policy. Organized by the European Commission in 2017, "Common Blokzinc for Good" contest titled poses a good example.

2.2.3 Risks Relating to Blokzinc Technology and Constraints

But like all technology also blokzinc, In addition to the above mentioned benefits and advantages, on-site are also significant risks, and these risks remain as potential obstacles in front of the mass adoption of this technology.

First, it would be appropriate to dwell on the risks posed by certain structural features of the blokzincir. Blokzincir immutability (immutability) feature, mainly because most people enter data into the system, and this error is always open on all systems "boomerang effect" can create. And also, a company that provides access to the system, "private key" is damaged or if used incorrectly, verified user can not be taken out of the system and a large amount of data loss may occur. Situated in the supply chain Blokzincir One of the most important obstacle in front of the adoption by stakeholders, users many new and "revolutionary" to see that technology fails in practice and therefore a significant loss of time and monetary costs is that they have been forced to endure in vain. This was the worst experience, Companies are hesitant to adopt technology at an early stage reduces.

Electronic Data Interchange (Electronic Data Interchange-EDI), 30 For over a year, although standard data exchange system used in the logistics sector still lacks a standard. Instead of, Located actors in the supply chain, and has multiple different versions of the technology are emerging because they use different versions of many errors and inconsistencies. Blokzinc also seem to be open to many risks resulting from the lack of standardization. They came together and formed the supply chain actors at the global level BITE (The Blockchain In Trucking Alliance) The main objective of the association called the creation of a global standard for the blokzinc. In addition to the sectoral associations such as the World Trade Organization BITE (IN THAT), Organization of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) The counterparts of international economic organizations it is important to begin work in this area.

Another important constraints is slow to adopt technology firms are Blokzinc. Thus, we can see today is mostly limited applications and specific issues of concern in the supply chain. for example, Chemical giant announced that it has started testing the blokzinc technology to track the shipment of goods from BASF. Another example is the IBM application is the use Everledger. the diamonds from the mine to the jeweler's shops to be traced through this system, the attributes (attributes) Storing, The creation of digital identities so that each diamond's ownership history for each (To identify from the war zone) It becomes possible to monitor. also, Internet giants Microsoft and Alibaba also recently efforts to develop the technology for supply chain purposes blokzinc said they would consumables.

Blokzinc for deficiencies in legislation means that the regulatory environment filled with uncertainty. Companies can apply to be an authority or standard test cases they want to do with it blokzinc, It leads naturally to be less willing to take risks. According to research by the incipient be on the Blokzinc, editor of the technology is far from developing any standard format that will make it more secure means also means. Two processes or threads in this process comprises feeding each other vicious circle. reason to adopt one hand, Reaching a scale that stemmed the authority to require the creation of a standard-setting technology; on the other hand, The lack of standards also reduces the technology adoption rates.

Blokzincir improve the safety of the network where it falls well ahead, To explain this important new technology also has serious disadvantages hosting fraud. "A majority of 51%" on the network have the computing power required to make changes; Any individual with a strong enough hardware "an attack by 51%" could do, It can execute unwanted actions, Means can steal valuable information and may damage the supply chain. If worse in terms of customs, verification of his customs administration does not require the consent of their network partners, Since that result from customs duties and powers given concrete, a network without the need for any power leak or be allowed to exceed the limit of illegal goods may arise as a result.

Blokzincir specific information, public authorities, regulatory and supervisory agencies and other supply chain players to make it more accessible to remain a concern in some firms. Thus transparency, on the one hand the efficiency of the operational information needed storage from competitors while increasing the other hand, the company disclosure and thus "undesirable transparency" is return it called and ends in front of the adoption of this technology is an obstacle such as a precise sword.

Above risks necessary research and development efforts to minimize the possible though, blokzinc network of the most important problems that users must be in sufficient number and the nature. Because the number of potential users of knowledge on this subject less, separate integration between the technology is not good for a lot of users will need to write interfaces. All members of the network can affect any errors that may occur in a protocol blokzinc. Ethereum a simple glitch in the application of the protocols, a virtual currency blokzinc, An intruder 55 It has led to steal millions of dollars from the system.

2.3 A Turkish Customs Administration for Customs 4.0 Application: Supply Chain Management System

The study so far on the part of RFID and blokzinc (block chain) place is given to applications related to technology and opportunities. In this chapter, In our country this is an import operation will be the two technologies can be used together for Turkish Customs Administration of Customs 4.0 design a system that will be the first application of the concept will be made.

system which will be described in detail below is based on new technological possibilities of the customs process to integrate the results of goods from manufacturer to step up to the optimization of customs clearance process. So that the supply chain to reduce costs, increase speed and efficiency and are intended to speed up and simplify the customs. The entire supply chain to the consumer from the system manufacturer's safety and traceability system is a candidate to provide for the "Supply Chain Management System (TZYS)"It will not be wrong to call.

Supply Chain Management System information technology, It consists of three main components, including data security and goods tracking.

Information technologies in components, of the actors in the supply chain will be established at the customs office within the Supply Chain Management System software to connect can add to the information and documents in the software they use in their operations and their in Supply Chain IT system from the management system can be transferred to the wise is based on the creation.

Data security component of the IT system and document information generated using the input information and document blokzinc technology and wherein the generating process is based on providing an exact safe.

tracking component items;

  1. Tagging with RFID tags in their source of goods coming to our country,
  2. Summary of the information required for customs declaration using technology Blokzinc (The details shown in the diagram above) sender, carrier, customs advisers, port, warehouse RFID tags on goods by actors in the supply chain as unique stage (One in the world: It can not be paired with another RFID tag) ID / serial (ID) matched with the number of installed their own systems,
  3. carriers, Freight forwarders and importers of the information in their system in stages followed by transferring the tzys'y,
  4. by the customs authorities of all data relating to the goods to be transferred to the WISE system and can be monitored without human intervention tzys',
  5. From the manufacturer to the consumer in the country of all goods throughout the supply chain / product can be monitored in real time,
  6. Thus, in certain stages of counting the recurring, provides supervision and control operations such as reducing the time and cost saving

based on the principles.

Sthirteen and Evaluation

International trade and hence demand for increased efficiency in the supply chain and logistics processes, specialized customer with less cost (customized) It raises expectations for faster delivery to meet the demands of the.

Finding scattered and irregular form in the supply chain of international trade data and the data of tens of base paper by separate actors stationery intensive and non-integrated openly with each other to fraud and error risk of the human factor to be entered into a variety of systems and standards lack of data it is emerging as the lack of an important.

structural and functional constraints concerning the traceability of the supply chain and predictability; lack of sufficient cooperation between public and private actors in the supply chain, data and information sharing structural barriers and in the efficiency of the supply chain can not be effectively used technology is emerging as a significant obstacle.

Additionally, related to increased supply chain security and compliance requirements of regulations in international trade (terror, war, threats related to the environment and human health: chemical weapons, chemicals that create environmental hazards, biological and nuclear waste and so on.) needs and requirements are emerging more.

The use of location technologies given in this article, To reduce trade costs, To increase transparency, To prevent fraud and ensure the acceleration of trade by reducing customs clearance times. But, In parallel with these technological developments on a global scale it is seen in the emergence of many constraints.

  1. Administration throughout the supply chain process of regulatory (customs legislation, negativities arising from the use of trade policy instruments in order to protectionism: i.e.. metal products in the tariff war between China and the U.S.) And contradict each other and are different in nature from time to time in the international political struggle to become increasingly more tool,
  2. Geopolitical barriers (stability and security of the trade routes of the factors threatening way: war, terror, piracy, political instability) and their negative effects on world trade,
  3. Global economic risks: Worldwide currency instability in the market in a very short time to spread all over the world and can bring real sector and therefore also the risk of adverse effects on world trade,

All of these obstacles and constraints when international risk with predicted to occur more in the next decade, It is expected to be developed in parallel to these risks, technological development.

In parallel to the new technologies will be activated in international trade, Referencing this way responds to the challenge to be expected.

Parallel to the development of the aforementioned technologies, Customs all over the world 4.0 It is contemplated to implement the technology expressed under. In this context; ABD, In countries such as Singapore and South Korea customs administration block chain as part of a new generation of technology and technology uses a combination of RFID systems are planned commissioning. In this way, while tracking throughout the supply chain while providing the goods, on the other hand be securely without human intervention, the processing of the data relating thereto and that which could be obtained.

In the coming period; the customs authorities will be faced with many new challenges. On the one hand opportunities such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, particularly in the area of ​​risk management not only numeric data, for example by making it from the image data received through the material and x-rail and by machine learning "pattern analysis" will be processed by the methods and allows the use in the fight against illicit trade.

Additionally, some "order modifier" (disruptive) technologies will be particularly effective to replace the entire system in the field of customs procedures. Three dimensional (3D) printers, The goods without going through the classic logistics and customs systems, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, textile, machine components and throughout the supply chain of electronic parts in chip level with parts make it possible to be transmitted without passing the custom supervision. In this case, classical supply chain and regulatory processes of these products (customs and so on.) which result in users reaching the final without going through the channel. Both tariffs and quality, both in terms of standardization and public health and safety; The goods pass the necessary supervision and control channel which leads to the uncertain situation makes available to consumers in terms of customs legislation of such transactions.

All these challenges, When the game changer technologies and new technological possibilities are evaluated together; Customs 4.0 of age, supply chain management and logistics to indicate there would be a period in which arise new paradigm "futuristic" will be an evaluation.

more will be the next fifty years, the risks and uncertainties in the global trading space, This new working methods and technology will also be developed against the risks would be wrong to predict the groundbreaking at least risks.

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WRITERS

The Peace BİÇİMSEV

Customs and Trade Specialist

General Directorate of Liquidation Services

e-mail: B.Bicimseven@gtb.gov.tr

Tel: 0312 449 42 75

1997 In Ankara University Faculty of Political Sciences, He graduated from the Department of Public Administration and 1998 year began his career as a Customs Assistant. Customs Expertise throughout; risk management, later checked, the facilitation of trade, in supply chain and logistics issues with the import regulations he has conducted studies. 2007 In the United States, Case Western Reserve University and received an MBA degree 2009- 2011 University of Lausanne in Switzerland between the years, risk management in customs and supply chain has made doctoral studies in security issues. Peace Biçimsev speaks English and French and is married with two children.

Serhan Kamil BIG

Customs and Trade Specialist

General Directorate of Liquidation Services

e-mail: skocaman@gtb.gov.tr

Tel: 0312 449 42 61

1987 He was born in Trabzon. he also completed his primary and secondary education in Trabzon. 2009 In Gazi University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, he graduated from the International Relations Department. In the same year he started working as an Assistant Specialist at the Customs Undersecretariat of Customs. Halen, customs and trade Ministry, Liquidation Services continues to serve as the General Directorate of Customs and Trade Specialist.